And two olive trees by it, one upon the right side of the bowl, and the other upon its left side.
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Methodius of Olympus
Zechariah shows that the olive shadows forth the law of Moses, speaking thus: “And the angel that talked with me came again, and waked me, as a man that is wakened out of his sleep, and said to me, ‘What do you see?’ And I said, ‘I have looked, and behold a candlestick all of gold, with a bowl on the top of it, … and two olive trees by it, one on the right side of the bowl and the other on its left side.’ ” And after a few words, the prophet, asking what are the olives on the right and the left of the candlestick and what are the two olive boughs in the hands of the two pipes, the angel answered and said, “These are the two sons of fruitfulness which stand by the Lord of the whole earth.” [These signify] the two firstborn virtues that are waiting upon God, which, in his dwelling, supply around the wick, through the boughs, the spiritual oil of God, that humanity may have the light of divine knowledge. But the two boughs of the two olives are the law and the prophets, around, as it were, the lot of the inheritance, of which Christ and the Holy Spirit are the authors. We ourselves, meanwhile, [are] not being able to take the whole fruit and the greatness of these plants, before chastity began to rule the world, but only their boughs—namely, the law and the prophets—did we formerly cultivate, and those moderately, often letting them slip. For who was ever able to receive Christ or the Spirit, unless he first purified himself? For the exercise which prepares the soul from childhood for desirable and delectable glory, and carries this grace safely there with ease, and from small toils raises up mighty hopes, is chastity, which gives immortality to our bodies. It becomes all people willingly to prefer in honor and to praise above all things; some, that by its means they may be betrothed to the word, practicing virginity; and others, that by it they may be freed from the curse, “Dust you are, and to dust you will return.” This, O Arete, is the discourse on virginity which you required of me, accomplished according to my ability; which I pray, O mistress, although it is mediocre and short, that you will receive with kindness from me who was chosen to speak last.