Therefore have we erred from the way of truth, and the light of righteousness hath not shined unto us, and the sun of righteousness rose not upon us.
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Augustine of Hippo
One must not believe that we owe religious cult to the heavenly lights or must worship them because they are sometimes used as images to refer to the saints. We will now explain this in the name of Christ, showing how illogical it would be to want to worship the sun or the moon or the stars or the sky, because an image has been derived from them to indicate the saints. Many objects have been chosen by the inspired authors to represent the saints, but no one worships them. If in fact you wanted to worship everything symbolizing the saints, you would have to worship the mountains and the hills, given that it is written, "The mountains will exult like rams and the hills like lambs." You refer to the saints, but I will speak of Christ himself. If it is written, "The lion of the tribe of Judah has triumphed," why don"t you worship the lion? And the rock as well, since it is written, "And the rock was Christ." If, then, you do not worship these earthly beings that symbolize Christ, even if c...
Those who worship the sun will say, "The sun has not risen for us." While they worship the sun that he makes rise on the good and the wicked, the sun that enlightens only the good has not risen for them. Therefore, they fashion new gods, each one as he wishes. Indeed, what would prevent the workshop of an erring heart from giving the form he likes to his own fantasies? - "Expositions of the Psalms 80.14"
"And he will remain with the sun, and before the moon, from age to age." This speaks of the honor of the Incarnation, who remains united to the Word. He in fact sits at the right hand of the Father, reigning forever in glory. By "sun" is certainly meant the Word of the Father, the Son of God, who is God made man. Christ is one, out of two: two distinct natures, each perfect. Indeed, of him the godless will say, "For us the sun has not risen, and the light of righteousness did not shine on us." Then, "And before the moon, from age to age," and by this must also be understood what was said earlier, "He will remain." Christ in fact remains before the moon, which is to say before the church, which perceives him at all times thanks to the lights of the heart. Rightly the moon can be compared with the church, which does not have a splendor of its own but in some way receives the light of the sun. Astronomers accurately explain this, among other things. - "Explanation of the Psalms 71.5"
Readers must use great discernment, so as to recognize that in sacred Scripture, a particular word does not always have one and the same meaning. The sun, for example, at times has a positive meaning and at times negative. In fact, sometimes it refers to our Redeemer and sometimes to persecution. According to the testimony of the book of Wisdom, the godless in hell will say, "We strayed from the way of truth, and the sun of righteousness never rose for us." And of the seed that was sown, the Lord says, "The sun rose, and it was scorched," because, when persecution comes, the word that was preached dries up in the hearts of the wicked. - "Homilies on Ezekiel 2.7.1"
I would call the old sun of this world the one that at times disappears, at times is blocked by walls, at times is hidden by clouds. I would call the old sun that which is subject to vanity, fears corruption, is afraid of judgment. Indeed, it is written, "The sun will be turned into darkness and the moon into blood." I would call old, one who partakes in human crimes, who does not flee adultery, who does not refrain from homicide and, while no person wants to be mixed up in it when a crime comes to light, he alone is always involved. Since it is obvious that this is old, we do not find a new one other than Christ the Lord, of whom it is written, "The Sun of righteousness will rise for us." The prophet also speaks of him, impersonating sinners, "The light of righteousness did not shine for us, nor did the sun ever rise for us." In fact, when the entire world was oppressed by the darkness of the devil and a haze, full of crimes, covered the world, this Sun deigned in the last days, when ...