1. "Of the eighth," seems here obscure. For the rest of this title is more clear. Now it has seemed to some to intimate the day of judgment, that is, the time of the coming of our Lord, when He will come to judge the quick and dead. Which coming, it is believed, is to be, after reckoning the years from Adam, seven thousand years: so as that seven thousand years should pass as seven days, and afterwards that time arrive as it were the eighth day. But since it has been said by the Lord, "It is not yoursto know the times, which the Father hath put in His own power:" and, "But of the day and that hour knoweth no man, no, neither angel, nor Power, neither the Son, but the Father alone:" and again, that which is written, "that the day of the Lord cometh as a thief," shows clearly enough that no man should arrogate to himself the knowledge of that time, by any computation of years. For if that day is to come after seven thousand years, every man could learn its advent by reckoning the years. ...
3. In fear of which comdemnation the Church prays in this Psalm, and says, "Reprove me not, O Lord, in Thine anger" (ver. 1). The Apostle too mentions the anger of the judgment; "Thou treasurest up unto thyself," he says, "anger against the day of the anger of the just judgment of God." In which he would not be reproved, whosoever longs to be healed in this life. "Nor in Thy rage chasten me." "Chasten," seems rather too mild a word; for it availeth toward amendment. For for him who is reproved, that is, accused, it is to be feared lest his end be condemnation. But since "rage" seems to be more than "anger," it may be a difficulty, why that which is milder, namely, chastening, is joined to that which is more severe, namely, rage. But I suppose that one and the same thing is signified by the two words. For in the Greek qumoj, which is in the first verse, means the same as orgh, which is in the second verse. But when the Latins themselves too wished to use two distinct words, they looked ...
2. Be we then willingly ignorant of that which the Lord would not have us know: and let us inquire what this title, "of the eighth," means. The day of judgment may indeed, even without any rash computation of years, be understood by the eighth, for that immediately after the end of this world, life eternal being attained, the souls of the righteous will not then be subject unto times: and, since all times have their revolution in a repetition of those seven days, that per-adventure is called the eighth day, which will not have this variety. There is another reason, which may be here not unreasonably accepted, why the judgment should be called the eighth, because it will take place after two generations, one relating to the body, the other to the soul, For from Adam unto Moses the human race lived of the body, that is, according to the flesh: which is called the outward and the old man, and to which the Old Testament was given, that it might prefigure the spiritual things to come by ope...
Indignation. Literally, "fury. "(Haydock)
Such strong expressions were requisite to make the carnal Jews fear God's judgments, though a being of infinite perfection can have no passion. (St. Chrysostom)
David does not beg to be free from suffering, (Haydock) but he requests that God would chastise him with moderation, Jeremias x. 24., and xlvi. 28. (Calmet)
Justice without mercy is reserved for the last day. (St. Gregory)
Wrath. This regards those who have built wood, on the foundation. They shall be purified by fire. (St. Augustine) Purgatory was then believed in the 4th Century. (Berthier)
Let me not be condemned either to it, or hell. (St. Gregory, hic. and Psalm xxxvii.)
For the octave. That is, to be sung on an instrument of eight strings. St. Augustine understands it mystically, of the last resurrection, and the world to come; which is, as it were, the octave, or eighth day, after the seven days of this mortal life; and for this octave, sinners must dispose themselves, like David, by bewailing their sins, whilst they are here upon the earth. (Challoner) (Worthington)
It may also signify, that this psalm was to be sung by "the eighth "of the 24 bands, 1 Paralipomenon xv. 21. David might compose it after sickness, with which he had been punished for his adultery; (Calmet) or under any distress: he expresses the sentiments of a true penitent, (Berthier) with which he was ever after impressed. (Haydock)
It is applicable to penitents of the new law. (Worthington)