And the children of Israel did evil in the sight of the LORD: and the LORD delivered them into the hand of Midian seven years.
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George Leo Haydock
Madian. This nation had formerly been almost extirpated by Moses, Numbers xxxi. 7 (Haydock)
But they had re-established themselves, and dwelt in the neighbourhood of the Moabites, whom they had assisted. They now made a league with Amalec, and other eastern nations, (Calmet) in order to revenge themselves upon the Israelites. (Haydock)
Madian was a descendant of Abraham by Cetura, Genesis xxv. 2. The shortness of the servitude, which the Israelites had to suffer from them, was compensated by its severity. (Menochius)