That in those days, when king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the citadel,
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George Leo Haydock
Captial. Hebrew, "palace, (Protestants; Haydock) or castle "(Calmet) may also signify "a capital. "(Montanus)
Hystaspes founded this ancient royal city of Persia, (Pliny, vi. 27.) or he greatly embellished it. (Calmet) (Ælian, Anim. xiii. 18.) (Tirinus)
He seems to have resided here almost constantly. The preceding kings (Calmet) spent the winter in this warm climate, and perhaps the spring. See 2 Esdras i. 1. They spent other parts of the year at Ecbatana and at Babylon. (Calmet)
Susa is the metropolis of Persia which the historians say was founded by the brother of Memnon. It is called Susa because it lies along the river Susis where the royal palace of Cyrus was constructed with glittering white stone as well as other varieties. It is conspicuous for its golden columns and roofs and for its precious stones. It also contains the sculpture of a sky full of shining stars and other incredible things to the human mind. This is the place where it is said that the king gave a lavish banquet and displayed his great wealth to his subjects. - "Explanation on the Book of Esther 1"