Romans 4:16

Therefore it is of faith, that it might be by grace; to the end the promise might be sure to all the descendants; not to those only who are of the law, but to those also who are of the faith of Abraham; who is the father of us all,
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AD 400
The promise could not be certain to every offspring, that is, to everyone from every nation, unless it was by faith. The source of the promise is faith and not the law, because those who are under the law are guilty, and the promise cannot be given to those who are guilty. For this reason they must first be purified by faith, so that they may become worthy to be called the children of God, so that the promise may be certain. For if they say they are children of God when they are still guilty (that is to say, under the law), then the promise is not certain. First the children of God must be set free from sin. So those who are under the law must be rescued from the law in order to deserve to receive the promise, which is all the greater because it is apart from the law. Commentary on Paul’s Epistles. ...

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
There are two kinds of children of Abraham, to whom alone these promises are made; the one is according to the flesh, the other according to the spirit. The former of these had no more part in the promises made to him and his seed than the Gentiles, unless they imitated the fidelity and obedience of their father. (Calmet) It is in this sense of spiritual father, that the priest at the altar, speaking in the name of the faithful, calls Abraham our patriarch. (Estius) ...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
It is not only the law which faith upholds but the promise also…. But the law when kept after its expiry date makes even faith of no effect and blocks the promise. In saying this Paul shows that faith, far from being superfluous, is necessary to the extent that without it there is no salvation. Here Paul mentions two blessings. The first is that the things which have been given are secured. The second is that they are given to all Abraham’s descendants, including the Gentiles who believe and excluding the Jews who do not. ...

Thomas Aquinas

AD 1274
After showing that the promise made to Abraham and his seed was not to be fulfilled through the Law [n. 354], the Apostle now shows that it is to be fulfilled through faith. In regard to this he does three things: first, he shows through what such a promise is to be fulfilled; secondly, in whom it is to be fulfilled, there [v. 16b; n. 361] at to all the seed; 185 thirdly, by whom it is to be fulfilled, there [v. 17b; n. 364] at who gives life to the dead. 360. First, therefore, he concludes to his proposition, as it were by division. For it seems necessary that the promise be fulfilled either by faith or by the Law; but not by the Law, because the promise would be abolished. Hence, he concludes, that is why it depends on faith, if we are to attain the promise of being heirs of the world: "This is the victory that overcomes the world, our faith" (1 Jn 5:4). Then he confirms this with a middle term contrary to the one he used above. For it was stated that if justice were from the Law, th...

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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