Romans 10:1

Brethren, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.
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AD 400
Since Paul wants to liberate the Jews from the law, which is a veil over their faces, but does not want to appear to desire this out of any hatred for Judaism, he shows his love for them and says many good things about the law. But he teaches that the time for obeying the law has come to an end and by doing this bears witness that he is concerned for them, if only they will listen to him and not assume that he is their enemy. Commentary on Paul’s Epistles.

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Here Paul begins to speak of his hope for the Jews, lest the Gentiles in their turn become condescending toward them. For just as the pride of the Jews had to be countered because they gloried in their works, so also with the Gentiles, lest they become proud at having been preferred over the Jews.

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
Is for them. That is, for Israel, or the Israelites, named before. (Witham) After having said that the greatest part of Israel was cast off by the Almighty, the apostle, to show that he meant not to insult or provoke them, here testifies that he sympathizes in their misery, and with groans prays in their behalf to the Lord, that he would vouchsafe to grant them understanding, and open their eyes to the truth. Thus, though tenderly affected towards his countrymen, still he could not dissemble the truth, or flatter them in their incredulity, and hardness of heart. (Calmet)

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Paul continues to demonstrate his deepseated good will toward the Jews…. He even does his best to find excuses for them, but in the end he is overcome by the nature of the facts and cannot do so.

Thomas Aquinas

AD 1274
After showing how the Gentiles have been called to faith by the election of God's grace and also some of the Jews, i.e., a minority who did not stumble and fall [n. 735], the Apostle now discusses in more detail the fall of the Jews. In regard to this he does three things: first, he explains the cause of their fall, over which he laments; secondly, he shows that their fall is not universal, in chapter 11 [n. 859]; thirdly, that it is neither unprofitable nor irreparable [11:11; n. 878]. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he shows that their fall is lamentable, considering its cause; secondly, that it is not wholly inexcusable [v. 18; n. 845]. In regard to the first he does two things: first, he shows that he feels pity for the Jews; secondly, the cause of his pity [v. 2; n. 815]. 814. First, therefore, he says: I have said that the Jews have not attained the law of righteousness, because they stumbled over the stumbling-block. But I am not indignant against them; rather,...

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation - 2 Peter 1:20

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