Matthew 10:4

Simon the Canaanite, and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him.
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Ambrose of Milan

AD 397
Ambrosiaster, in Luc. 6: He was not chosen among the Apostles unwittingly; for that truth is great, which cannot be harmed even by having an adversary in one of its own ministers.
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
De Cons. Evan., ii, 30: Some copies have Lebbaeus; but whoever prevented the same man from having two, or even three different names?. City of God, book xviii, ch. 49: These therefore He chose for His disciples, whom also He named Apostles, humbly born without honour, without learning, that whatever they should do that was great, it was He that should be in them and should do it. He had among them one that was evil, whom He should use in the accomplishment of His Passion, and who should be an example to His Church of suffering evil men.
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AD 735
For the number twelve, which is made up of three into four, denotes that through the four quarters of the world they were to preach the faith of the holy Trinity.
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Glossa Ordinaria

AD 1480
Ord.: From the healing of Peter’s wife’s mother to this place there has been acontinued succession of miracles; and they were done before the Sermon upon the Mount, as we know for certain from Matthew’s call, which is placed among them; for he was one of the twelve chosen to the Apostleship upon the mount. He here returns to the order of events, taking it up again at the healing of the centurion's servant; saying, “And calling to him his twelve disciples.”. see Greg. Hom. in Ev., xvii,1: And this doubling seems to have some reference to the two precepts of charity, or to the two Testaments. non occ.: They are named two and two to express their union as yoke-fellows.


AD 420
A kind and merciful Lord and Master does not envy His servants and disciples ashare in His powers. As Himself had cured every sickness and disease, He imparted the same power to His Apostles. But there is a wide difference between having and imparting, between giving and receiving. Whatever He does He does with the power of a master, whatever they do it is with confession of their own weakness, as they speak, “In the name of Jesus rise and walk.” . The Evangelist couples the names throughout in pairs. So he puts together Peter and Andrew, brothers not so much according to the flesh as in spirit; James and John who left their father after the flesh to follow their true Father; “James the son of Zebedee and John his brother.” He calls him the son of Zebedee, to distinguish him from the other James the son ofAlphaeus. The other Evangelists in this pair of names put Matthew before Thomas; and donot add, “the Publican,” that they should not seem to throw scorn upon the Evangelist by bringin...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Then after having mentioned Lebbæus, whose surname was Thaddæus, and Simon Zelotes, whom he calls also the Canaanite, he comes to the traitor. And not as a sort of enemy or foe, but as one writing a history, so has he described him. He says not, the unholy, the all unholy one, but has named him from his city, Judas Iscariot. Because there was also another Judas, Lebbæus, whose surname was Thaddæus, who, Luke says, was the brother of James, saying, Judas the brother of James. Luke 6:16 Therefore to distinguish him from this man, it says, Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed Him. Matthew 10:4 And he is not ashamed to say, who also betrayed Him. So far were they from ever disguising anything even of those things that seem to be matters of reproach. And first of all, and leader of the choir, is the unlearned, the ignorant man. Acts 4:13

John Chrysostom

AD 407
He makes them confident not only by calling their ministry a sending forth to the harvest, but by giving them strength for the ministry; whence it follows, "He gave them power over all unclean spirits to cast them out, and to heal every sickness and every disease.”. This is no small honour (done to Peter), He places Peter from his merit, Andrew from the nobility he had in being the brother of Peter. Mark names Andrew next after the two heads, namely, Peter and John; but this one not so; for Mark has arranged them in order of dignity.

Rabanus Maurus

AD 856
And cf. Tertullian, cont. Marc. iv, 13: This number is typified by many things in the Old Testament; by the twelve sons of Jacob, by the twelve princes of the children of Israel, by the twelve running springs in Helim, by the twelve stones in Aaron’s breastplate, by the twelve loaves of the shew-bread, by the twelve spies sent by Moses, by the twelve stones of which the altar was made, by the twelve stones taken out of Jordan, by the twelve oxen which bare the brazen sea. Also in the New Testament, by the twelve stars in the bride's crown, by the twelve foundations of Jerusalem which John saw, and her twelve gates. e Beda: The Greek or Latin ‘Petrus’ is the same as the Syriac Cephas, in both tongues the word is derived from a rock; undoubtedly that of which Paul speaks, "And that rock was Christ.” . Thaddeus or Lebbaeus is interpreted ‘a little heart,’ that is, aheart-worshipper. "Simon Chananaeus, and Judas Scarioth, who also betrayed him.”. Also He willed to be betrayed by a disciple...

Remigius of Rheims

AD 533
Wherein is openly showed that the multitude were troubled not with one single kind of affliction, but with many, and this was His pity for the multitude, to give His disciples power to heal and cleanse them. ap. Rabanus: There have been some who in this name Peter, which is Greek and Latin, have sought a Hebrew interpretation, and would have it to signify, ‘Taking off the shoe,’, ‘or unloosing,’ or ‘acknowledging.’ But those that say this are contradicted by the facts. First, that the Hebrew has no letter P, but uses PH instead. Thus Pilate they call, Philate. Secondly, that one of the Evangelists has used the word as an interpretation of Cephas; The Lord said, “Thou shalt be called Cephas, ”And Andrew his brother.”. Andrew is interpreted ‘manly;’ for as in Latin ‘virilis’ is derived from, ‘vir,’so in Greek, Andrew is derived from &#945;&#957;&#951;&#961;.Rightly is he called manly, who left all and followed Christ, and manfully persevered in His commands. James is interpreted ‘The sup...

Theophylact of Ochrid

AD 1107
. See the humility of Matthew, how he ranked himself after Thomas. And when he came to Judas, he did not say, "the defiled, the enemy of God," but he named him Iscariot after his place of birth. For there was another Judas, who was also called Lebbaeus and Thaddaeus. So there are two James’s, the son of Zebedee and the son of Alphaeus, and two Judas’s, Thaddaeus and the betrayer. And three Simons, Peter, the Canaanite, and the betrayer; for Judas Iscariot was also called Simon.
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Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation - 2 Peter 1:20

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