Luke 14:1

And it came to pass, as he went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees to eat on the sabbath day, that they watched him.
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Ambrose of Milan

AD 397
First, Christ cures the man with dropsy. The abundant flow of the flesh had oppressed the functions of his soul and had quenched the glow of his spirit. Then, Christ teaches humility. At the feast, Christ gently opposes the longing for a better seat, so that the humanity of persuasion excludes the harshness of coercion, reason promotes the effect of persuasion, and correction chastises pride. He joins humanity to this, as if at the next threshold. The boundaries of the Lord’s saying differentiated this, if it is conferred on the poor and the weak. There is a greedy disposition in those who would be rewarded for hospitality.

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Now He has aptly compared the dropsical man to an animal which has fallen into a ditch, (for he is troubled by water,) as He compared that woman, whom He spoke of as bound, and whom He Himself loosed, to a beast which is let loose to be led to water. Or we rightly compare the dropsical man to acovetous rich man. For as the former, the more he increases in unnatural moisture the greater his thirst; so also the other, the more abundant his riches, which he does not employ well, the more ardently he desires them.
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AD 735
When it is said that Jesus answered, there is a reference to the words which went before, And they watched him. For the Lord knew the thoughts of men. But the, who were asked, are rightly silent, for they perceived that whatever they said, would be against themselves. For if it is lawful to heal on the sabbath day, wily did they watch the Savior whether He would heal? If it is not lawful, why do they take care of their cattle on the sabbath? Hence it follows, But they held their peace. By these words He so refutes His watchers, the Pharisees, as to condemn them also of covetousness, who in the deliverance of animals consult their own desire of wealth. How much more then ought Christ to deliver a man, who is much better than cattle!. By a suitable example then He settles the question, strewing that they violate the sabbath by a work of covetousness, who contend that he does so by, a work of charity. Hence it follows, And they could not answer him again to these things. Mystically, the d...

Cornelius a Lapide

AD 1637
And it came to pass that He went into the house of one of the chief Pharisees. "To do them service," says Titus , "Christ makes Himself their friend, and, as it were, one of their household," for "although He knew the malice of the Pharisees, yet He became their guest that He might benefit by His words and miracles those who were present, and teach them the lawfulness of healing on the Sabbath, and the respective duties of entertainers and guests."
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Cyril of Alexandria

AD 444
As they were silent from ill will, Christ refutes their unrelenting shamelessness by the convincing arguments that he uses. “Whose son of you,” he says, “or whose ox shall fall into a pit, and he will not immediately draw him out on the sabbath day?” If the law forbids showing mercy on the sabbath, why do you take compassion on that which has fallen into the pit? … The God of all does not cease to be kind. He is good and loving to people. Commentary on Luke, Homily
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Cyril of Alexandria

AD 444
He became the guest of his host to fulfill a duty. It says, “They watched him.” Why did they watch him? They watched to see if he would disregard the honor of the law and so do something forbidden on the sabbath day. O senseless Jew, understand that the law was a shadow and type, waiting for the truth. The truth was Christ and his commandments. Why then do you arm the type against the truth? Why set the shadow in array against the spiritual interpretation? Keep your sabbath rationally…. Those who had the office to minister among you according to the law used to offer God the appointed sacrifices, even on the sabbath. They slaughtered the victims in the temple and performed the acts of service that were required of them. No one rebuked them, and the law itself was silent. It did not forbid people ministering on the sabbath. This was a type for us. As I said, it is our duty, keeping the sabbath in a rational manner, to please God by a sweet spiritual fragrance. As I have already said, we...

Cyril of Alexandria

AD 444
A Pharisee, of higher rank than usual, invited Jesus to a banquet. Although he knew their bad intentions, he went with him and ate in their company. He did not submit to this act of condescension to honor his host. He rather instructed his fellow guests by words and miraculous deeds that might lead them to the acknowledgment of the true service, even that taught us by the gospel. He knew that even against their will he would make them eyewitnesses of his power and his suprahuman glory. Perhaps they might believe that he is God and the Son of God, who took on our likeness but was unchanged and did not cease to be what he had been. Commentary on Luke, Homily

Cyril of Alexandria

AD 444
Disregarding then the snares of the Jews, He cures the dropsical, who from fear of the Pharisees did not ask to be healed on account of the sabbath, but only stood up, that when Jesus beheld him, He might have compassion on him and heal him. And the Lord knowing this, asked not whether he wished to be made whole, but forthwith healed him. Whence it follows; And he took him, and healed him, and let him go. Wherein our Lord took no thought not to offend the Pharisees, but only that He might benefit him who needed healing. For it becomes us, when a great good is the result, not to care if fools take offense. But seeing the Pharisees awkwardly silent, Christ baffles their determined impudence by some important considerations. As it follows; And he answered and said to them, Which of you shall have an ass or an ox fallen into a pit, and will not straightway pull him out on the Sabbath day?

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
This was the Hebrew expression for taking a meal; their frugality probably suggested this method of expression, bread being the principal part of their repast. (Calmet) What a contrast here between the actions of the Pharisees and those of our Saviour! They watched all his actions, in order to have an opportunity of accusing him, and of putting him to death; whilst he, on the contrary, seeks after nothing but the salvation of his enemies' souls. (Tirinus)
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Gregory The Dialogist

AD 604
Rightly then is the dropsical man healed in the Pharisees' presence, for by the bodily infirmity of the one, is expressed the mental disease of the other.
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Theophilus of Antioch

AD 184
But by His question He exposes their folly. For while God blessed the sabbath, they forbade to dogood on the sabbath; but the day which does not admit the works of the good is accursed. As though He said, If the law forbids to have mercy on the sabbath-day, haveno care of your son when in danger on the sabbath-day. But why speak I of a son, when you do not even neglect an ox if you see it in danger?
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Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation - 2 Peter 1:20

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