John 2:5

His mother said unto the servants, whatsoever he says unto you, do it.
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Alcuin of York

AD 804
Vessels to hold water were there, after the manner of the purifying of Jews. Among other traditions of the Pharisees, they observed frequent washings. The Triclinium is acircle of three couches, cline signifying couch: the ancients used to recline upon couches. And the Architriclinus is the one at the head of the Triclinium, i.e. the chief of the guests. Somesay that among the Jews, He was a priest, and attended the marriage in order to instruct in the duties of the married state. He was the King of glory, and changed the elements because He was their Lord. The servants are the doctors of the New Testament, who interpret the holy Scripture to others spiritually; the ruler of the feast is some lawyer, as Nicodemus, Gamaliel, or Saul. When to the former then is committed the word of the Gospel, hid under the letter of the law, it is the water made wine, being set before the ruler of the feast. And the three rows of guests at table in the house of the marriage are properly mentioned; the ...

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
A firkin is acertain measure; as urn, amphora, and the like. Metron is the Greek for measure: whencemetreta. Two or three, is not to be taken to mean some holding two, others three, but the same vessels holding two or three. This miracle of our Lord’s, turning the water into wine, is no miracle to those who know that God work edit. For the Same that day made wine in the water pots, Who every year makes wine in the vine: only the latter is no longer wonderful, because it happens uniformly. And therefore it is that God keeps some extraordinary acts in store for certain occasions, to rouse men out of their lethargy, and make them worship Him. Thus it follows, He manifested forth His glory. If now for the first time they believed on Him, they were not His disciples when they came to the marriage. This however is a form of speech, such as saying that the Apostle Paul was born in Tarsus of Cilicia; not meaning by this that he was an Apostle then. In the same way when we hear of Christ’s disc...


AD 735
As if she said, Though He appear to refuse, He will do it nevertheless. She knew His pity and mercifulness. And there were set there six water pots of stone, after the manner of the purifying of the Jews, containing two or three firkins apiece. Hydriae are vessels to hold water: hydor being the Greek for water. At the time of our Lord’s appearing in the flesh, the sweet vinous taste of the law had been weakened by the carnal interpretations of the Pharisees.

Cornelius a Lapide

AD 1637
His Mother saith, &c. His mother modestly holds her peace, and rightly yields to her Song of Solomon , as being the Son of God. Although the Son seems to deny His Mother, the Mother knows His filial piety. Therefore with all confidence she bids the servants what to do. S. Gaudentius comments in these words, "The Mother would not have said, Whatsoever He saith unto you do it, unless being full of the Holy Ghost from her birth she had foreseen the whole process of Christ"s turning the water into wine." Wherefore S. Bernard on these words (Hom2) says, "I see plainly that it was not as being wroth, or as wishing to confound the shrinking modesty of His Virgin Mother, that He said, What have I to do with thee, but for our sakes, that the care of parents according to the flesh should not trouble those who are converted to the Lord." For Christ presently obeys His Mother, and to honour her performs the miracle. Hear S. Chrysostom: "Although He answered thus, yet He complied with His Mother"s ...

Cyril of Alexandria

AD 444
The woman having great influence to the performing of the miracle, prevailed, persuading the Lord, on account of what was fitting, as her Son. She begins the work by preparing the servants of the assembly to obey the things that should be enjoined.

Hilary of Poitiers

AD 368
Water is poured into the water pots; wine is drawn out into the chalices; the senses of the drawer out agree not with the knowledge of the pourer in. The pourer in thinks that water is drawn out; the drawer outthinks that wine was poured in. When the ruler of the feast had tasted the water that was made wine, and knew not whence it was, (but the servants who drew the water knew,) the governor of the feast called the bridegroom. It was not a mixture, but a creation: the simple nature of water vanished, and the flavor of wine was produced; not that a weak dilution was obtained, by means of some strong infusion, but that which was, was annihilated; and that which wasnot, came to be.

John Chrysostom

AD 407
For she knew that His refusal proceeded not from want of power, but from humility, and that He might not seem without cause to hurry to the miracle; and therefore she brought the servants.

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Although He had said, Mine hour is not yet come, He afterwards did what His mother told Him, in order to show plainly, that He was not under subjection to the hour. For if He was, how could He have done this miracle before the hour appointed for it? In the next place, He wished to show honor to His mother, and make it appear that He did not go counterto her eventually. He would not put her to shame in the presence of so many; especially as she had sent the servants to Him, that the petition might come from a number, and not from herself only; His mother said to the servants, Whatsoever He says to you, do it. Palestine being a dry country, with few fountains or wells, they used to fill water pots with water, to prevent the necessity of going to the river, if they were unclean, and to have materials for washing at hand. To prevent any unbeliever from suspecting that a very thin wine was made by the dregs having been left in the vessels, and water poured in upon them, He says expressly, A...

Tertullian of Carthage

AD 220
The comparison with this law of that definition, "Unless a man have been reborn of water and Spirit, he shall not enter into the kingdom of the heavens"

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation - 2 Peter 1:20

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