Galatians 1:1

Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
The one sent “from men” is a liar; the one sent “through man” tells the truth, as God too, who is truthful, may send truth through men. The one, therefore, who is sent not from men or through man but “through God” derives his truthfulness from the One who makes truthful even those sent through men.
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Cassiodorus Senator

AD 585
When he calls himself an apostle not of human making but through Christ Jesus, he does away with those who had only human authority for styling themselves apostles. The churches at that time were being thrown into turmoil by false preachers. He greets these churches with all the brethren who are with him. In that greeting he also blesses them, so that their fitness to receive the word of the Lord may be established. . ...
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Cornelius a Lapide

AD 1637
Paul, an apostle, not of men. That Isaiah , because the other Apostles were sent by Christ while still mortal, Paul by Christ when wholly deified, and therefore in every way immortal. So says S. Augustine. But the simpler explanation is to take not of men to mean, not of mere men, but of Christ, man and God. There is a fourfold mission, says S. Jerome. Some are sent by God alone, as Paul; some by God through man"s instrumentality, as Joshua was through Moses; some by man alone, as those who are promoted by their friends to be abbot, dean, or bishop; some by themselves, as heretics. The preposition "of" (ab) therefore, used here, denotes the principal cause, while "by" (per) denotes the instrumental; for the meaning is that he was not called by Prayer of Manasseh , nor by God by means of Prayer of Manasseh , but immediately by God Himself. ...

Cornelius a Lapide

AD 1637
CONTENTS The Galatians were Gentiles who emigrated from Gaul into Greece, and so were called Gallo-Greeks. Suidas thinks that these Gauls were Sennonians, who, under the leadership of Brennus, invaded Rome, but being repulsed by Camillus, crossed over into Greece, and were there overthrown by a storm of rain and hail while they were attempting to plunder Delphi—the few, he says, who escaped were called Gallo-Greeks or Galatians. However, Justin (lib25), S. Jerome, and others give a different account of them. The Galatians were bounded by Cappadocia on the east, Bithynia on the west, Pamphylia on the south, and the Black Sea on the north. According to Pliny (lib. v. c. ult.), their chief cities were Tanium, Pessinuntis, and Ancyra. Of their language, S. Jerome, in his commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians (Proem. lib2 , in fine), says: "Apart from the Greek used by the whole of the East, their proper language is the same as that of the Treviri"—that Isaiah , German. Since, then, th...

Gaius Marius Victorinus

AD 400
His reason for saying “through Christ and God the Father, who raised him from the dead” is that what God does he does through Christ. And so that people would not say, “How did you learn from Christ?” since Paul had not previously been a follower of Christ and Christ was dead, he said that God raised Christ from the dead. By this he implies that it is Christ himself, who taught him, who has been raised from the dead—raised, that is, by the power of God the Father. . ...
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George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
The apostle begins by asserting his apostleship which the false teachers had called in question. He was called to it by Christ himself, in his miraculous conversion, being changed "into a vessel of election to carry his name before kings and nations, and the children of Israel. "Thus chosen, we see him immediately after his conversion, preaching in Damascus and Arabia. (Calmet) Let us beware of self-appointed teachers, who are neither called by God nor rightly ordained by men, and yet are observed to intrude themselves into the ministry. Not from man, neither by man. The apostle here expressly says, all the brethren who are with me; to show that he advanced nothing which was not conformable to the belief of all the faithful. (St. Jerome) And again he says, (ver. 12.) neither did I receive it from man, nor did I learn it, but by the revelation of Jesus Christ. That is, not from him, who was a man only, but from Jesus Christ, who was both God and man. St. Jerome, who has left us a com...

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
And 12. Non ab homine, on which words St. Jerome, ergo non homo tantum est Christus. See St. Chrysostom in his commentary, or ermeneia, on this epistle, p. 713, where he takes notice against the Arians, that here God the Father is called Theos, not o Theos; so that their argument from the Greek article is of no force; choris arthrou.ouk apo tou, alla apo theou patros Ver. 7. In aliud Evangelium, quod non est aliud; eis eteron euaggelion, o ouk estin allo. Volunt convertere, metastrepsai, invertere, evertere, pervertere. St. Chrysostom, Lat. edit. p. 812. E. ubi sunt igitur, qui nos ut contentiosos damnant, eo quod cum hæreticis habemus dissidium, dictitantque nullum esse discrimen inter nosillos. Audiant Paulum (p. 813. A.) illos subvertisse Evangelium, qui paululum quid dam rerum nova rum invexerant. And in the Greek edition of Savil, p. 717, linea 3, pou nun eisin .akouetosan ti phesin o Paulos ...

Hippolytus of Rome

AD 235
And Jacob says, "Who shall rouse him up? "And that is just what David and Paul both refer to, as when Paul says, "and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead."
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Ignatius of Antioch

AD 108
I know, obtained the ministry which pertains to the common . Having beheld your bishop, I know that he was not selected to undertake the ministry which pertains to the common
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AD 420
Not in pride, as some suppose, but by necessity, he said that he was not an apostle from men or through man … so that by this he might confound those who were alleging that Paul was not one of the twelve apostles or ordained by his elders. This might also be taken as aimed obliquely at Peter and the others, because the gospel was committed to him not by the apostles but by the same Jesus Christ who had chosen those apostles. . ...
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John Chrysostom

AD 407
To say “who raised him from the dead” is to encapsulate the essence of God’s beneficence toward us, which coincides in no small part with his present purpose. For the majority are much less apt to listen to words that establish the majesty of God than to those which demonstrate his good will to humanity. ...
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John Chrysostom

AD 407
[The first verse] is full of great passion and strong sentiment; and not the prologue only but, as it were, the whole letter. For always to speak mildly to those who are being taught, even when they need vehemence, is not the part of a teacher but of a corrupter and an enemy.
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John Chrysostom

AD 407
The exordium is full of a vehement and lofty spirit, and not the exordium only, but also, so to speak, the whole Epistle. For always to address one's disciples with mildness, even when they need severity is not the part of a teacher but it would be the part of a corrupter and enemy. Wherefore our Lord too, though He generally spoke gently to His disciples, here and there uses sterner language, and at one time pronounces a blessing, at another a rebuke. Thus, having said to Peter, Blessed are you, Simon Barjona, Matthew 16:17 and having promised to lay the foundation of the Church upon his confession, shortly afterwards He says, Get behind Me, Satan: you are a stumbling block unto Me. Matthew 16:23 Again, on another occasion, Are you also even yet without understanding? Matthew 15:16 And what awe He inspired them with appears from John's saying, that, when they beheld Him conversing with the Samaritan woman, though they reminded Him to take food, no one ventured to say, What seekest Tho...
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John of Damascus

AD 749
Those from among the Jews who had believed, being on the one hand possessed by the prejudice to Judaism and on the other hand, drunk with vainglory, wishing also to ascribe to themselves the authority of teachers, came to the nation of the Galatians and taught the necessity of being circumcised, of keeping Sabbaths and new moons and of being intolerant of Paul who abolishes these. They argued that those around Peter and James and John, who are the first of the Apostles, do not prohibit these things. Indeed Paul appeared yesterday and today, whereas those around Peter were first. He is the disciple of the Apostles, whereas they are disciples of Christ. He is alone, whereas they are many and pillars of the Church. Seeing, then, in front of him an entire nation and a fire to have been lit, starting from the Church of the Galatians, he writes this Letter to everybody offering a word of apology and right at the start he takes up what they were saying undermining his reputation — namely, tha...

John of Damascus

AD 749
Why did he not start with what befits the Godhead of Christ, but with the very passion? He did so because they rebelled against him as those who would be punished if they deviated from the law; and so he mentions that thing through which every need of the law has been thrown out. I mean, of course, the cross and the resurrection, which provided the cause for the salvation of all. ...
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Pamphilus of Caesarea

AD 309
We are clearly given to understand that Jesus Christ was not a [mere] man but was of divine nature…. Because he knew him to be of a more sublime nature, he therefore said that he was not appointed by a man. .
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Polycarp of Smyrna

AD 155
But may the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, and Jesus Christ Himself, who is the Son of God, and our everlasting High Priest, build you up in faith and truth, and in all meekness, gentleness, patience, long-suffering, forbearance, and purity; and may He bestow on you a lot and portion among His saints, and on us with you, and on all that are under heaven, who shall believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, and in His Father, who "raised Him from the dead. ...
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Tertullian of Carthage

AD 220
He professes himself to be "an apostle"-to use his own, words-"not of men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ.". at all events, have handed down to me this career of Paul, which you must not refuse to accept. Thence I demonstrate that from a persecutor he became "an apostle, not of men, neither by man; ". To the Galatians he declares himself to be "an apostle not of men, neither by man, but through Jesus Christ and God the Father." ...
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The Apostolic Constitutions

AD 375
I have taught the churches of the believers to reverence one almighty, invisible, and incomprehensible God. And this teaching has been given me, not from men, nor through men, but through Jesus Christ,
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Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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