2 Thessalonians 1:8

In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:
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Ambrosiaster

AD 400
do not know God This refers to the pagans who do not know that God is the Father of Jesus Christ.

Andreas of Caesarea

AD 637
by a flame of fire The fire is either a visible fire as happened to the two commanders of fifty men in the presence of Elijah (2 Kgs 1:9-11) or the coming of Christ in glory will destroy them by the breath of his mouth (Is 11:4), and the aforementioned nations, also devouring their general, the devil, and He (Christ) will deliver the devil to the lake of fire together with the Antichrist and the false prophet to be tortured forever and ever. ...

Caesarius of Arles

AD 542
by a flame of fire This refers to what was said about those assembled at Armageddon.

Haimo of Auxerre

AD 865
who are not obedient to the Gospel It also refers to the heretics and the false Christians

John Chrysostom

AD 407
If they that have not obeyed the Gospel suffer vengeance, what will not they suffer who besides their disobedience also afflict you? And see his intelligence; he says not here those who afflict you, but those who obey not. So that although not on your account, yet on His own it is necessary to punish them. This then is said in order to full assurance, that it is altogether necessary for them to be punished: but what was said before, was said that they also might be honored, because they suffer these things on your account. The one causes them to believe concerning the punishment; the other to be pleased, because for the sake of what has been done to them they suffer these things. All this was said to them, but it applies also to us. When therefore we are in affliction, let us consider these things. Let us not rejoice at the punishment of others as being avenged, but as ourselves escaping from such punishment and vengeance. For what advantage is it to us when others are punished? Let...

Tertullian of Carthage

AD 220
For as the apostle declares that the Lord will come "to take vengeance on them that know not God and that obey not the gospel, who "he says, "shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power". ". , therefore, does it appertain to punish such as know not God, for none ought to be ignorant of Him. In the (apostle's) phrase, "From the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power" ...

Thietland of Einsiedeln

AD 1000
by a flame of fire Perhaps it is about that which is read in the Apocalypse of John, "and fire came down from heaven and consumed them." (Rev 20;9) who are not obedient to the Gospel And this even refers to evil Catholics who do not obey the Gospel of our Lord though they say they believe, but they do not live according to what they believe. ...

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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