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Romans 1:9

For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son, that without ceasing I make mention of you always in my prayers;
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Ambrosiaster

AD 400
In order to encourage brotherly love, Paul gives God, whom he serves, as a witness, to whom he prays on their behalf, not in keeping the law but in the gospel of his Son, i.e., not in that which Moses the servant handed down but in that which the most beloved Son taught. For the servant is as far from his Lord as the gospel is from the law, not because the law is wrong but because the gospel is better. Therefore Paul serves God in the gospel of his Son in order to show that it is God’s will that men should believe in Christ. “Whom I serve.” How? In my spirit, says Paul, not in the circumcision made with hands, nor in new moons, nor in the sabbath or the choice of foods, but in the spirit, that is, in the mind. Because God is a spirit, it is right that he should be served in spirit or in the mind, for whoever serves him in his mind serves him in faith. This is what the Lord said to the Samaritan woman in John. … He prays without ceasing for them, remembering them in his prayers in order...

Gennadius of Constantinople

AD 471
When Paul mentioned “his spirit,” he was not speaking about the person of the Spirit but about the grace of the Spirit which had been given to him to preach the gospel and by which, once he had been made worthy to be a coworker with God, he was enabled to carry out his work of mission. .

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
God is my witness. I call God to witness. It is an oath. (Witham)

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Words these of an Apostle's bowels of affection, the showing forth this of fatherly concernment! And what is it which he says, and why does he call God to witness? He had to declare his feeling toward them. Since then he had not as yet ever seen them, he therefore called no man to witness, but Him Who enters in the hearts. For since he was saying, I love you, and as a token thereof alleged his praying continually for them, and wishing to come to them, and neither was this self-evident, he betakes himself to the trustworthy testimony. Will then any one of you be able to boast that he remembers, when praying at his house (ἐ πὶ τἥς οἰκίας) the entire body of the Church? I think not. But Paul drew near to God in behalf not of one city only, but of the whole world, and this not once, or twice, or thrice, but continually. But if the continually bearing any one about in one's memory would not happen without much love; to have any in one's prayers, and to have them there continually, think wha...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Why does Paul call God as his witness? He had to declare to the Romans all his feelings toward them, but he had not yet seen any of them. So he called no human witness but God who enters the heart. For he was saying “I love you,” and as evidence of that he mentioned that he was constantly praying for them. This was not selfevident either, so he had recourse to the most trustworthy testimony. Can any of you boast that, when praying at home, he remembers the entire body of the church? I doubt it. But Paul drew near to God on behalf not of one city only but of the whole world, and this not once, twice or three times but continually. When Paul says “whom I serve with my spirit in the Gospel of his Son,” he shows us both the grace of God and his own humility, the grace of God because he entrusted such a great task to Paul, and his own humility because Paul imputes it all not to his own zeal but to the help of the Spirit. The addition of “the gospel” shows what kind of ministry Paul had. For...

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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