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Romans 1:7

To all that be in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.
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Ambrose of Milan

AD 397
There is one grace on the part of the Father and the Son, and there is one peace on the part of the Father and the Son, but this grace and peace is the fruit of the Spirit.
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Ambrosiaster

AD 400
“To all God’s beloved in Rome, who are called to be saints.” Although Paul is writing to the Romans, nevertheless he indicates that he is writing to those who are in the love of God. Who are these, if not those who believe rightly concerning the Son of God? These are the ones who are holy and who are said to have been called. For someone who understands incorrectly is not said to have been called, just as those who act according to the law have not rightly understood Christ and have done injury to God the Father, by doubting whether there is full salvation in Christ. Therefore they are not holy, nor are they said to have been called. “Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.” Paul says that grace and peace are with those who believe rightly. It is grace by which sinners have been cleansed and peace by which former enemies have been reconciled to the Creator, as the Lord says: “Whatever house you enter and they receive you, say: Peace be to this house.” And ...

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Here again Paul has emphasized God’s grace rather than the saints’ merit, for he does not say “to those loving God” but rather “to God’s beloved.”
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Instead of saying “greetings,” Paul says “Grace to you and peace.” Grace then is from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ, by which our sins, which had turned us from God, are forgiven; and from them also is this peace, whereby we are reconciled to God. Since through grace hostilities dissolve once sins are remitted, now we may cling in peace to him from whom our sins alone had torn us…. But when these sins have been forgiven through faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, we shall have peace with no separation between us and God. ...
< 1 min4/10

Gennadius of Constantinople

AD 471
First Paul prays that the Romans might receive the grace of God, by which all believers enjoy salvation. Then he asks for peace, by which God gives to all the restoration of virtue. For the one who accepts the gospel way of life has peace with God. The one who serves him is amenable to everyone. .
< 1 min5/10

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
To all that are at Rome. Called to be saints. That is, who not only are named saints, but who by such a call from God, are to be sanctified by his grace, and to become holy, or saints. (Witham)
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John Chrysostom

AD 407
See how continually he puts the word called, saying, called to be an Apostle; among whom you also are called; to all that be in Rome, called: and this he does not out of superfluity of words, but out of a wish to remind them of the benefit. For since among them which believed, it was likely that there would be some of the consuls (ὑ πάτων; Ben. consulares) and rulers as well as poor and common men, casting aside the inequality of ranks, he writes to them all under one appellation. But if in things which are more needful and which are spiritual, all things are set forth as common both to slaves and to free, for instance, the love from God, the calling, the Gospel, the adoption, the grace, the peace, the sanctification, all things else, how could it be other than the uttermost folly, whom God had joined together, and made to be of equal honor in the greater things, those to divide on account of things on earth? On this ground, I presume, from the very outstart, this blessed Apostle, afte...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
See how often Paul uses the word called! … And he does so not out of longwindedness but out of a desire to remind them of the benefit which calling brings. For since it was likely that among those who believed there would be some consuls and rulers as well as poor and common men, Paul casts aside inequality of rank and writes to them all under one common heading. But if in the most important and spiritual things everything is laid out as common to both slaves and free men, e.g., the love of God, the calling, the gospel, the adoption, the grace, the peace, the sanctification, etc., how could it be other than the utmost folly to divide those whom God had joined together and made to be of equal honor in the higher things, for the sake of things on earth? For this reason, I presume, from the very start this blessed apostle casts out this mischievous disease and then leads them to the mother of blessings—humility. “Grace and peace!” Christ told his apostles to make peace their first word wh...

Severian of Gabala

AD 425
Paul does not say “to the saints” lightly—for “many are called but few are chosen” and not all have remained in their calling—but so that he would not be throwing holy things to dogs. … According to the heretics, if Christ is the Lord and God is our Father, then the Father will be a servant of Christ, for as the son is, so is the father. But it is not like that at all. Paul said that God is our Father, in order to show his grace, and that Christ is Lord, in order that the Romans should not become proud and think that because they too were sons of God they could despise the glory of the Son or raise themselves up beyond what was natural. Paul called God “the Father” because he judges no one, but the Son he called “Lord,” because he is the judge. He calls God “the Father” so as to point out his guardianship over us. He calls the Son “Lord” so that we might understand that we are called sons by the goodness of God but that Jesus is the true God by nature and our Lord. . ...

Tertullian of Carthage

AD 220
I will not speak of gods at all, nor of lords, but I shall follow the apostle, so that if the Father and the Son are both to be invoked, I shall call the Father “God” and invoke Jesus Christ as “Lord.”
< 1 min10/10

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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