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Romans 1:4

And declared to be the Son of God with power, according to the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead:
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Ambrosiaster

AD 400
When Paul speaks about the Son of God he is pointing out that God is Father, and by adding the Spirit of holiness he indicates the mystery of the Trinity. For he who was incarnate, who obscured what he really was, was then predestined according to the Spirit of holiness to be manifested in power as the Son of God by rising from the dead, as it is written in Psalm : “Truth is risen from the earth.” For every ambiguity and hesitation was made firm and sure by his resurrection, just as the centurion, when he saw the wonders, confessed that the man placed on the cross was the Son of God. … Note that Paul did not say “because of the resurrection of Jesus Christ” but “because of his resurrection from the dead,” because the resurrection of Christ led to the general resurrection. For this power and victory in Christ appears to be all the greater, in that a dead man could do the same things as he did when he was alive. By this fact he appeared to dissolve death, in order to redeem us. Thus Paul...

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Paul had to oppose the unbelief of those who accept our Lord Jesus Christ only according to the man whom he put on but do not understand his divinity, which sets him apart from every other creature.
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Christ is the son of David in weakness according to the flesh but Son of God in power according to the Spirit of sanctification…. Weakness relates to David but life eternal to the power of God.
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
Jesus was predestined, so that he who was to be the Son of David according to the flesh should nonetheless be in power the Son of God, according to the Spirit of sanctification, for he was born of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary. This is that unique act, performed in an ineffable manner, the assumption of a man by the Word of God, so that he might truly and properly be called at once the Son of God and the Son of Man—the Son of Man because of the man who was assumed, the Son of God because of the only begotten God who assumed him. ...

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
With respect to this predestination Christ was glorified before the foundation of the world, so that as a result of his resurrection from the dead he might have glory at the Father’s right hand, where he now sits. Thus, when he saw that his predestined glorification had come, in order that what had already been done by predestination might now also take place in fact, he prayed: “Father, glorify thou me in thy own presence with the glory which I had with thee before the world was made.” ...
< 1 min5/11

Cyril of Alexandria

AD 444
As Christ was predestined to be the Son of God in power, so we too have been predestined to be sons of God, not however in power but by grace, having been made worthy of such a calling and having received it only by the will of God the Father. There is a big difference here between Emmanuel and us. For even if he was born of the seed of David according to the flesh, and so we can say that the Son of God was one of us in his humanity, still, in power and in truth he is the natural Son, and it is through him that we are made sons as well…. We stand in the same relation to him as images do to their original. . ...

George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
Who was predestined the Son of God. The learned bishop of Meaux, Bossuet, in his second Pastoral Instruction, in which he condemned the French translation of Mons. Simon, (p. 127.) takes notice, that according to St. Paul, and the constant doctrine of St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas, Christ as man, or the human nature of Christ united to his divine person, was predestinated without any precedent merits, by a free and liberal predestination of God's goodness. (Witham) Christ, as man, was predestinated to be the Son of God; and declared to be so (as the apostle here signifies) first by power, that is, by his working stupendous miracles; secondly, by the spirit of sanctification, that is, by his infinite sanctity; thirdly, by his resurrection, or raising himself from the dead. (Challoner) ...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
What is said has been made obscure by the close-folding of the words, and so it is necessary to divide it. What then is it, which he says? We preach, says he, Him Who was made of David. But this is plain. Whence then is it plain, that this incarnate Person was also the Son of God? First, it is so from the prophets; wherefore he says, Which He had promised afore by the Prophets in the Holy Scriptures. Romans 1:2 And this way of demonstration is no weak one. And next also from the very way of His Generation: which also he sets forth by saying, of the seed of David according to the flesh: for He broke the rule of nature. Thirdly, from the miracles which He did, yielding a demonstration of much power, for in power means this. Fourthly, from the Spirit which He gave to them that believe upon Him, and through which He made them all holy, wherefore he says, according to the Spirit of holiness. For it was of God only to grant such gifts. Fifthly, from the Resurrection; for He first and He alon...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
What is being said here has been made obscure by the complex syntax, and so it is necessary to expound it. What is he actually saying? “We preach,” says Paul, “him who was made of David.” But this is obvious. How then is it obvious that this incarnate person was also the Son of God? First of all, it is obvious from the prophets [cf. v. ], and this source of evidence is no weak one. And then there is the way in which he was born [cf. v. ], which overruled the rules of nature. Third, there are the miracles which he did, which were a demonstration of much power, for the words in power mean this. Fourth, there is the Spirit which he gave to those who believe in him, through whom he made them all holy, which is why he adds: “according to the Spirit of holiness.” For only God could grant such gifts. Fifth, there was the resurrection, for he first and he only raised himself, and he also said that this was a miracle which would stop the mouths even of those who believed arrogantly, for he said...

John of Damascus

AD 749
By his miracles and resurrection and by the descent of the Holy Spirit, it was made plain and certain to the world that Christ was the Son of God.
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Thomas Aquinas

AD 1274
42. Having commended Christ’s origin [n. 28], he now commends his power; and mentions three things. First, his predestination, when he says, who was predestined; secondly, his dignity or power, when he says [n. 49] Son of God in power; thirdly, the sign or effect, when he says [n. 58] according to the spirit of sanctification. 43. In regard to the first it should be noted that the word "predestination" is taken from "destination," for something is said to be predestined as though destined beforehand. But destination is taken in two senses: in one sense, to destine is to send, for those who are sent to achieve some purpose are said to be destined, in accord with 1Mac 1(:14), "Some of the people destined, and they went to the king."12 In another sense to destine is to determine, as in 2Mac 6(:20): "Eleazar destined not to do any unlawful things." But this second meaning seems to be derived from the first. For as a courier, who is sent, is directed to something, so whatever we determine w...
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Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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