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Romans 1:1

Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,
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Ambrosiaster

AD 400
Saul changed his name to Paul, and the change was permanent. Because Saul means restlessness or trial, when he came to faith in Christ he called himself Paul, i.e., rest, because our faith is peace. For whereas previously he had inflicted trials on the servants of God because of his desire to fulfill the law, later he himself endured trials on account of the hope which before he had denied because of his love of Judaism. In calling himself a “servant of Jesus Christ,” Paul shows that he has been delivered from the law, and he puts both names, Jesus and Christ, in order to signify the person of God and man, for in both he is Lord, as Peter the apostle testifies, saying: “He is the Lord of all.” And because he is Lord, he is also God, as David says: “For the Lord himself is God.” The heretics deny this. Marcion, it seems, denied Christ and his body out of hatred for the law, although he confessed Jesus. The Jews and Photinus denied that Jesus was God out of their zeal for the law. For wh...

Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
By these two words, called and set apart, Paul distinguishes between the church, which is acceptable to God, and the synagogue, whose glory has faded away. The church (i.e., ecclesia) is so called because it “calls forth”: the synagogue, because it “gathers together.” ,
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Eusebius of Emesa

AD 360
Some people argue quite pointlessly as to whether the participle called is meant to modify servant or apostle. It applies to both, since everyone is called, and called equally, both to faith and grace and to election and the apostolic order. .
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George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
Called to be an apostle, or a called apostle. That is, not only having the name of an apostle, but having his call to this high function, and his mission from God. Separated unto the gospel of God. He means that he was separated from others, and appointed by the Holy Spirit to preach the gospel, as we read Acts xiii. 2. when the Holy Spirit to those of the Church at Antioch, said, Separate me Saul and Barnabas, for the work unto which I have taken them. (Witham) ...
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George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
Vocatus, kletos Apostolos. Also ver. 6. and 7. kletoi. Ver. 31. asunthetous. See 2 Timothy iii. 3. aspondous, sine foedere.
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Irenaeus of Lyons

AD 202
Paul, when writing to the Romans, has explained this very point: "Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ, predestinated unto the Gospel of God, which He had promised by His prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning His Son, who was made to Him of the seed of David according to the flesh, who was predestinated the Son of God with power through the Spirit of holiness, by the resurrection from the dead of our Lord Jesus Christ." ...
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John Chrysostom

AD 407
Moses having written five books, has nowhere put his own name to them, neither have they who after him put together the history of events after him, no nor yet has Matthew, nor John, nor Mark, nor Luke; but the blessed Paul everywhere in his Epistles sets his own name. Now why was this? Because they were writing to people, who were present, and it had been superfluous to show themselves when they were present. But this man sent his writings from afar and in the form of a letter, for which cause also the addition of the name was necessary. But if in the Epistle to the Hebrews he does not do the same, this too is after his own wise judgment. For since they felt prejudiced against him, lest on hearing the name at the outstart, they should stop up all admission to his discourse, he subtly won their attention by concealing the name. But if some Prophets and Solomon have put their names, this I leave as a subject for you to look further into hereafter, why some of them wished to put it so, a...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Moses wrote five books, but nowhere did he put his own name to them … nor did Matthew, John, Mark or Luke. But St. Paul everywhere in his epistles puts his own name. Why? Because the others were writing to people who were present, and it would have been superfluous for them to have announced themselves when they were present. But Paul sent his writings from a distance and in the form of a letter, and so he had to add his name. Why did God change his name and call him Paul instead of Saul? It was so that even in this respect he might not come short of the apostles but that he might also have the same preeminence that the chief of the disciples had and on that basis be more closely united with them. Paul also calls himself the “servant” of Christ, and there are many kinds of servitude. One is related to creation, “for all things are thy servants.” Another comes from faith and a third is civil subjection, as it says: Moses my servant is dead. Indeed, all the Jews were servants, but Moses ...

Severian of Gabala

AD 425
Paul here preaches the divinity of Christ to a world which was ignorant of it. Many people saw the Lord, and others believed in him without seeing, but Paul was called from heaven: “Saul, Saul, why do you persecute me?” He was more highly favored than the other apostles, for the Lord called Peter and James and John and made them his disciples; he did not immediately make or call them apostles. But he made Paul an apostle as soon as he called him. Thus the gospel is preached according to the plan of God. . ...
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Tertullian of Carthage

AD 220
Thians; so that, rebuked, and terrified, and already wounded with mourning, he therefore-the moderate nature of his fault permitting it-subsequently received pardon, than that you should interpret that (pardon as granted) to an incestuous fornicator? For this you had been bound to read, even if not in an Epistle, yet impressed upon the very character of the apostle, by (his) modesty more clearly than by the instrumentality of a pen: not to steep, to wit, Paul, the "apostle of Christ" ...
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Thomas Aquinas

AD 1274
15. This letter is divided into two parts, namely, the greeting and the body of the letter [epistularem tractatum], which begins there [n. 74] at "first indeed" and so on (1:8). In the first part three things are done: first, the person sending the greeting is described; secondly, the persons greeted, there [n. 66] at "to all who are in Rome" (1:7a); thirdly, the blessings invoked, there [n. 70] at "Grace to you" and so on (1:7b). 16. The person writing is described by four things [nn. 16, 20, 22, 23]. First, by his name, Paul, concerning which one should consider three things [nn 17-19]. First, its accuracy; for this name, as it is spelled here, cannot be Hebrew because Hebrew does not have the letter P in its alphabet; but it can be Greek and Latin. Still, if it be taken as some letter close to P, it can be Hebrew. 17. Secondly, one should consider its meaning. Considered as Hebrew, it means "wonderful" or "chosen"; taken as Greek, it means "quiet;" taken as Latin it means "small." A...
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Thomas Aquinas

AD 1274
This man is to me a chosen vessel to carry my name before the Gentiles and kings and the sons of Israel (Ac 9:15). 1. In sacred Scripture men are compared to vessels from four viewpoints: their construction, contents, use and fruit. From the viewpoint of construction, vessels depend on the good pleasure of their maker: "he reworked it into another vessel as it seemed good to him" (Jer 18:4). In the same way men’s construction1 depends on God’s good pleasure: "He fashioned us and not we ourselves" (Ps 100:3 Vul 99:3); hence Is (45:9) asks: "Does the clay say to him who fashions it, ‘What are you making?’": In the same vein St Paul asks: "Will what is molded say to its molder, ‘ Why have you made me thus?’" (Rom 9:20). Hence, it is the Creator’s will that determines the variety of construction among his vessels: "In a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and earthenware" (2 Tim 2:20). In the above words, blessed Paul is described as a vessel. What s...
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Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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