Matthew 5:36

Neither shall you swear by your head, because you can not make one hair white or black.
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Chromatius of Aquileia

AD 407
These words of the Lord whereby he forbids us to swear by these different elements invite a double explanation. First, he wanted to draw us away from the use of oaths and the customs of human error, lest each of us through swearing by these elements accord a creature the honor of divine veneration or believe one has impunity in swearing falsely if one swears by the elements of the world. … It can also be explained in this way: When one swears by heaven and earth, one swears by him who made heaven and earth, as the Lord himself declared elsewhere: “He who swears by the altar swears by it and by all things that are on it; and he who swears by the temple swears by it and by him who dwells in it.” Jesus goes on to say, “nor by Jerusalem,” for it is the city of the great King, that is, the symbol of Christ’s body, which is the spiritual and heavenly church. “Neither shall you swear,” he says, “by your head,” for according to the apostle, “the head of every man is Christ.” Therefore the one ...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Here again, not as wondering at man, has He withdrawn him from swearing by his head (for so man himself would be worshipped), but as referring the glory to God, and signifying that you are not master even of yourself, and of course therefore not of the oaths made by your head. For if no one would give up his own child to another, much more will not God give up His own work to you. For though it be your head, yet is it the property of another; and so far from being master thereof, you shall not be able to do with it, no not the least thing of all. For He said not, You can not make one hair grow; but, Not so much as change its quality. But what, it may be said, if any one should require an oath, and apply constraint? Let the fear of God be more powerful than the constraint: since, if you are to bring forward such excuses, you will keep none of the things which are enjoined. Yea, for first with respect to your wife you will say, what if she be contentious and extravagant; and then a...

Theophylact of Ochrid

AD 1107
God alone swears by Himself as He is not subject to anyone or anything. Since we do not have authority over ourselves, how can we swear by our own head? It is the property of another. But if you think your head is your own, then change one hair of it if you can.

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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