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Matthew 21:44

And whosoever shall fall on this stone shall be broken: but on whomsoever it shall fall, it will grind him to powder.
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
De Cons. Ev., ii, 70: Mark does not give this as their answer, but relates that the Lord after His question put to them, made this answer to Himself. But it may be easily explained, that their words are subjoined in such a way as toshew that they spoke them, without putting in ‘And they answered.’ Or this answer is attributed to the Lord, because, what they said being true, might well be said to have been spoken by Him who is truth. This troubles us more, how it is that Luke not only does not relate this to have been their answer, but attributes to them a contrary answer. His words are, “And when they heard it they said, God forbid.” The only way that remains for understanding this is, therefore, that of the listening multitudes some answered as Matthew relates, and some as Luke. And let it perplex no one that Matthew says that the Chief Priests and elders of the people came to the Lord, and that he connects the whole of this discourse in one down to this parable of the vineyard, witho...

Glossa Ordinaria

AD 1480
Ord.: Or, the Lord whom they killed, came immediately rising from the dead, and brought to an evil end those wicked husbandmen, and gave up His vineyard toother husbandmen, that is, to the Apostles.

Hilary of Poitiers

AD 368
Or, He set forth the Prophets as it were winepresses, into which an abundant measure of the Holy Spirit, as of new wine, might flow in a teeming stream. Or, The tower is the eminence of the Law, which ascended from earth to heaven, and from which, as from a watchtower, the coming of Christ might be spied. “And let it out to husbandmen.”. By the Son sent at last, is denoted the advent of our Lord. Christ was cast out of Jerusalem, as out of the vineyard, to His sentence of punishment. He is become the head of the corner, because He is the union of both sides between the Law and the Gentiles. ...

Jerome

AD 420
He hath “planted” a vine of which Isaiah speaks, “The vine of the Lord of Hosts is the house of Israel.” And “hedged it round about;” i.e. either the wall of the city, or the guardianship of Angels. “A winepress,” that is to say, An altar; or those winepresses after which the three Psalms, the 8th, the 80th, and the 83rd are entitled, that is to say, the martyrs. “And built a tower therein,” that is, the Temple, of which it is said by Micah, "And thou, O cloudy tower of the daughter of Sion.”. Not a change of place, for God, by whom all things are filled, cannot be absent from any place; but He seems to be absent from the vineyard, that He may leave the vine-dressers a freedom of acting. Beat them, as Jeremiah, killed them, as Isaiah, stoned them, as Naboth and Zacharias, whom they slew between the temple and the altar. But when He says, “They will reverence my Son,” He does not speak as in ignorance. For what is there that this householder (by whom in this place Godis intended) knows ...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Hom, lxviii: The design of this further parable is to show that their guilt was heinous, and unworthy to be forgiven. He is called man, by title, not by nature; in a kind of likeness, not in verity. For the Son knowing that by occasion of His human name He himself should be blasphemed as though he were mere man, spoke therefore of the Invisible God the Father as man; He who by nature is Lord of Angels and men, but by goodness their Father. Or, the winepress is the word of God, which tortures man when it contradicts his fleshly nature. When, that is, Priests and Levites were constituted by the Law, and undertook the direction of the people. And as an husbandman, though he offer to his Lord of his own stock, does not please him so much as by giving him the fruit of his own vineyard; so the Priest does not so much please God by his own righteousness, as by teaching the people of God holiness; for his own righteousnessis but one, but that of the people manifold. “And went into a far countr...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Then, that they might know that the penalty is not limited to their being cast out, He added the punishments also, saying, Every one that falls on this stone, shall be broken; but upon whomsoever it shall fall, it shall grind him to powder. He speaks here of two ways of destruction, one from stumbling and being offended; for this is, Whosoever falls on this stone: but another from their capture, and calamity, and utter destruction, which also He clearly foretold, saying, It will grind him to powder. By these words He darkly intimated His own resurrection also. Now the Prophet Isaiah says, that He blames the vineyard, but here He accuses in particular the rulers of the people. And there indeed He says, What ought I to have done to my vineyard, that I did not; Isaiah 5:4 and elsewhere again, What transgression have your fathers found in me? Jeremiah 2:5 And again, O my people, what have I done unto you? And wherein have I grieved you? Micah 6:3 showing their thankless disposition, and...

Rabanus Maurus

AD 856
“The season of fruit,” He says, not of rent-paying, because this stiff-necked nation brings forth no fruit. Or, the first servants who were sent were the Lawgiver Moses himself, and Aaron the first Priest of God; whom, having beaten them with the scourge of their tongue, they sent away empty; by the other servants understand the company of the Prophets. By what they say, “This is the Son,” He manifestly proves that the rulers of the Jews crucified the Son of God, not through ignorance, but through jealousy. For they understood that it was He to whom the Father speaks by the Prophet, "Ask of me, and I shall give thee the heathen for thine inheritance.” The inheritance given to the Son is the holy Church; an inheritance not left Him by His Father when dying, but wonderfully purchased by His own death. Or, The Jews endeavoured by putting Him to death to seize upon the inheritance, when they strove to overthrow the faith which is through Him, and to substitute their own righteousness which...

Theophylact of Ochrid

AD 1107
. The stone means Christ Himself; the builders are the teachers of the Jews who rejected Him as if He were useless, saying, "Thou art a Samaritan and hast a demon." But when He rose from the dead, He was set in place as the head of the corner, that is, He became the head of the Church, joining Jews and Gentiles in one faith. For as the stone which forms the corner of a building makes continuous the walls leading to it and from it, so Christ has bound all together in one faith. This corner is marvelous, and is the Lord’s doing (Ps. 117:22-23). For the Church which connects us and makes us one in faith is the Lord’s doing, and is worthy of all wonder, so well is it built. And in another sense is it marvelous, because the Word of Christ has been confirmed and substantiated by marvels, that is, miracles, so that the composition of the Church is marvelous. The kingdom of God, that is, closeness with God, has been taken from the Jews and given to those who believed. Those who stumble against...

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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