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Matthew 1:23

Behold, a virgin shall be with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which being interpreted is, God with us.
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Augustine of Hippo

AD 430
In App. s. 123: He, who by a touch could heal the severed limbs of others, how much more could He, in His own birth, preserve whole that which He found whole? In this parturition, soundness of the Mother’s body was rather strengthened than weakened, and her virginity rather confirmed than lost. But forasmuch as it was God the Word who was now born in the flesh, He showed Himself to be the Word, in that He preserved His mother’s virginity. For as our word when it is begot does not destroy the mind, so neither does God the Word in choosing His birth destroy the virginity. Cont. Faust., 12, 45, and 13, 7: Who so mad as to say with Manichaeus, that itis a weak faith not to believe i Christ without a witness; whereas the Apostle says, “How shall they believe on Him of whom they have not heard? Or how shall they hear without a preacher?” For none could suppose that long before Hewas born, He had raised up by magic prophets to prophesy of Him. For if we say to a Gentile, Believe on Christ tha...

Glossa Ordinaria

AD 1480
Ap Anselm: Or, he says, “all this was done,” meaning, the Virgin was betrothed, she was kept chaste, she was found with child, the revelation was made by the Angel, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken. For that the Virgin should conceive and should bring forth would never have been fulfilled, had she not been espoused that she should not be stoned; and had not her secret been disclosed by the Angel, and so Joseph taken her unto him, that she was not dismissed to disgrace and to perish by stoning. So had she perished before the birth, that prophecy would have been made void which says, “She shall bring forth a Son.” . Or it may be said, that the word “that” does not here denote the cause; for the prophecy was not fulfilled merely because it was to be fulfilled. But it is put consecutively, as in Genesis, “He hung the other on the gallows, that the truth of the interpreter might be proved;” since by the weighing of one, truth is established. So also in this place we must understa...

Jerome

AD 420
In Isa 7:14; The LXX and three others translate, ‘Thou shalt call,’ instead of which we have here, “They shall call,” which is not so in the Hebrew; for the word, ‘Charathi,’ which all render “Thou shalt call,” may mean, ‘And she shall call,’ that is, The Virgin that shall conceive and shall bear Christ, shall call His name Emmanuel, which is interpreted, ‘God with us.’. What is spoken to Ahaz then is to be thus understood. This Child, that shall be born of a Virgin of the house of David, shall now be called Emmanuel, that is, God with us, because the events (perhaps delivery from the two hostile kings)will make it appear that you have God present with you. But after He shall becalled Jesus, that is, Saviour, because He shall save the whole human race. Wonder not, therefore, O house of David, at the newness of this thing, that aVirgin should bring forth a God, seeing He has so great might that though yetto be born after a long while, He delivers you now when you call upon Him. ...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
Otherwise; the Angel seeing the depths of the Divine mercy, the laws of nature broken through and reconciliation made, He who was above all made lower than all; all these wonders, all this he comprises in that one saying, “Now all thishath happened;” as though he had said, Do not suppose that this is newly devised of God, it was determined of old. And he rightly cites the Prophet notto the Virgin, who as a maiden was untaught in such things, but to Joseph, asto one much versed in the Prophets. And at first he had spoken of Mary as “thywife,” but now in the words of the Prophet he brings in the word, “Virgin, "that he might hear this from the Prophet, as a thing long before determined. Therefore to confirm what he had said, he introduces Isaiah, or rather God; forhe does not say, Which was spoken by Isaiah, but, “Which was spoken of the Lordby the Prophet. "Indeed the Hebrew word signifying “Virgin”(Bet hula) is not used in this place, but instead the word, ‘Halma,’ which except the LXX...

John Chrysostom

AD 407
How was it then, one may say, that His name was not called Emmanuel, but Jesus Christ? Because he said not, you shall call, but they shall call, that is, the multitude, and the issue of events. For here he puts the event as a name: and this is customary in Scripture, to substitute the events that take place for names. Therefore, to say, they shall call Him Emmanuel, means nothing else than that they shall see God among men. For He has indeed always been among men, but never so manifestly. But if Jews are obstinate, we will ask the, when was the child called, Make speed to the spoil, hasten the prey? Why, they could not say. How is it then that the prophet said, Call his name Maher-shalal-hash-baz? Because, when he was born, there was a taking and dividing of spoils, therefore the event that took place in his time is put as his name. And the city, too, it is said, shall be called the city of righteousness, the faithful city Sion. Isaiah 1:26-27 And yet we nowhere find that the cit...
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John Chrysostom

AD 407
Why then do they not call him Emmanuel instead of Jesus Christ? Because the text says not “you shall call” but “his name shall be called.” This means that the multitude and the outcome of the events themselves will cause him to be called Emmanuel. For here he puts the event as a name. This is customary in Scripture, to substitute names for the actual events. Therefore to say “they shall call him ‘Emmanuel’ ” means nothing else than that they shall see God among us. Admittedly God has always been among us, but never before so openly. The Gospel of Matthew, Homily ...

Leo of Rome

AD 461
Serm. 23, 1: The conception was by the Holy Spirit within the womb of the Virgin; who, as she conceived in perfect chastity, in like manner brought forthher Son.
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Petrus Alphonsi

AD 1140
Dial. tit. 7: For we know not that any man of that day was called Emmanuel. But the Hebrew objects, How can it be that this was said on account of Christ and Mary, when many centuries intervened between Ahaz and Mary? But though the Prophet was speaking to Ahaz, the prophecy was yet not spoken to him only or of his time only; for it is introduced, “Hear, O house of David;” not, ‘Hear, O Ahaz.’Again, “The Lord Himself shall give you asign;” meaning He, and none other; from which we may understand that the Lord Himself should be the sign. And that he says “to you,” (plur.) and not ‘tothee,’ shows that this was not spoken to Ahaz, or on his account only. ...

Rabanus Maurus

AD 856
First, Angels hymning, secondly, Apostles preaching, then Holy Martyrs, and lastly, all believers.
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Remigius of Rheims

AD 533
It is a question who interpreted this name? The Prophet, or the Evangelist, or some translator? It should be known then, that the Prophet did not interpretit; and what need had the Holy Evangelist to do so, seeing he wrote in the Hebrew tongue? Perhaps that was a difficult and rare word in Hebrew, and therefore needed interpretation. It is more probable that some translator interpreted it, that the Latins might not be perplexed by an unintelligibleword.In this name are conveyed at once the two substances, the Divinity and Humanity in the one Person of the Lord Jesus Christ. He who before all time was begot in an unspeakable manner by God the Father, the same in the end of time was made “Emmanuel,” that is, “God with us,” of a Virgin Mother. This “God with us” may be understood in this way. Hewas made with us, passible, mortal, and in all things like unto us without sin; or because our frail substance which He took on Him, He joined in one Person toHis Divine substance. A certain one of...

Theophylact of Ochrid

AD 1107
The Jews say that it is not written in the prophecy "virgin" but "young woman." To which it may be answered that "young woman" and "virgin" mean the same thing in Scripture, for in Scripture "young woman" refers to one who is still a virgin. Furthermore, if it was not a virgin that gave birth, how would it be a sign, something extraordinary? Listen to Isaiah who says, "For this reason the Lord Himself shall give you a sign," and immediately he adds, "Behold, the Virgin" (Is. 7:14). So if it were not a virgin that would give birth, it would not be a sign. The Jews, then, alter the text of Scripture in their malice, putting "young woman" instead of "virgin." But whether the text reads "young woman" or "virgin," it should be understood in either case that it is a virgin who will give birth so that the event may be a miraculous sign. The Jews say, "How then is it that He was not called Emmanuel but Jesus Christ?" One may answer, "The prophet did not say ‘You shall call,’ but ‘They shall ...

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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