Esther 1:1

Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus, (this is Ahasuerus who reigned, from India even unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces:)
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George Leo Haydock

AD 1849
In. Hebrew, "and in. "In this manner the books of Scripture are usually connected. Septuagint place first the dream of Mardochai, chap. xi. 2. (Calmet) Assuerus. Septuagint Artaxerxes; as chap xvi. 1. The former is the title of the Median, the latter of the Persian, monarchs. This king reigned over both nations, and was most probably Darius Hystaspes, the third king of the Persians, (Tirinus) who subdued India (Herodotus) (Calmet) (Tirinus) Some understand Cambyses, (1 Esdras iv.; Genebrard) or Xerxes (Scalig.) or Artaxerxes Longimanus, (Bellarmine; Salien) or Memnon, (Eusebius) or Ochus. (Serarius) But (Calmet) the author of 3 Esdras iii. 1., and iv. 43., seems clearly declared for Hystaspes. (Tirinus) Though that work be not canonical, (Du Hamel) it may claim some authority, as an ancient history. (Haydock) This king gave orders for the building of the temple, 1 Esdras vi. 1, 14. India. Part had been (Calmet) subject to Xerxes. (Herodotus vii. 65.) But Darius subdued the count...


AD 420
The Book of Esther stands corrupted by various translators. Which (book) I, lifting up from the archives of the Hebrews, have translated more accurately word for word. The common edition drags the book by knotted ropes of words hither and yon, adding to it things which may have been said or heard at any time. This is as is usual with instruction by schools, when a subject has been taken up, to figure out from the words which someone could have used, which one either suffered injury, or which one caused injury (to the text). And you, O Paula and Eustochium, since you have both studied to enter the libraries of the Hebrews and also have approved of the battles of the interpreters, holding the Hebrew Book of Esther, look through each word of our translation, so you may be able to understand me also to augmented nothing by adding, but rather with faithful witness to have translated, just as it is found in the Hebrew, the Hebrew history into the Latin language. We are not affected by the p...

Rabanus Maurus

AD 856
Not only the Holy Scriptures, but the Jewish Antiquities of Josephus as well contain the story of Esther, although they differ in some of the historical details. Therefore, there is some question as to the actual identity of that Ahasuerus who ruled from India to Ethiopia over one hundred twenty-seven provinces. In fact, when Josephus mentions him, he relates that he was Cyrus son of King Xerxes who reigned over Persia after his father Darius. He also adds that this Cyrus was called Artaxerxes by the Greeks, having the nickname “Long-handed,” and was in power for forty years. But I do not think that Esther lived at that time. Ezra writes that he had returned at that time from Babylonia, but he would never have omitted mentioning Esther if she had actually accomplished the things which are attributed to her. Therefore Eusebius, in his Chronicles, thinks that this Ahasuerus was called Artaxerxes and reigned after Darius for forty years, having the nickname Nothus as his father had. - "Ex...

Richard Challoner

AD 1781
This Book takes its name from queen Esther, whose history is here recorded. The general opinion of almost all commentators on the Holy Scriptures makes Mardochai the writer of it: which also may be collected below from chap. 9 ver. 20.

Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. - 2 Peter 1:20

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